- Introduction to FSM
This section provides an introduction to what FSM is, some of the unique challenges of FSM, an overview of the systems level approach for implementation and operation, and, in the second Unit, is explained how to approach this online course in terms of study load, assignments, reading material, et cetera.
- Technological Fundaments of FSM
In this section the basic fundaments are explained on which most FS treatment technologies are based. Unit 2.1 aims to provide an overview of the current state of knowledge on the quantifi cation and characterisation of FS, to identify gaps in the existing body of knowledge, and to put these into perspective with regards to FS treatment objectives. Unit 2.2 is divided into three sections, presenting the physical, biological, and chemical mechanisms used for the treatment of FS. Physical mechanisms include dewatering, drying and volume reduction. These are the most widely employed mechanisms in current FS treatment methodologies, and are generally applicable. In the subsequent units (in the Technology section) it is then explained how these mechanisms are put to work in treatment technologies.
- Collection and Transport of Faecal Sludge
This chapter presents best practices in faecal sludge (FS) collection and transport that are applicable to a range of service providers, from sole proprietors with a bicycle driven cart, to large companies with multiple (sometimes hundreds) of transport vehicles operating in densely populated urban areas. The objective of this chapter is to highlight aspects of an ideal, professional and safe sludge removal service, while also showing the practical sides and real applications.
Unit 3.1 Methods and Means of Collection and Transport for FS
- FS Treatment Technologies
In the course on Technologies, first an overview is presented - how can the existing treatment technologies be classified, and what is a good starting point to select a technology? Units 4.2 and 4.3 deal with settling-thickening tanks and drying beds as more established technologies. Unit 4.4 is a very important unit, as in many places it is automatically assumed that faecal sludge can be treated in a wastewater treatment facility. That this can lead to grave consequences is explained here. Then Unit 4.5 shows different endproducts which can be obtained through various technologies, and how those endproducts can be a drive for collection and treatment of FS.
- Management in FSM
This section comprises 3 chapters of the book, namely Operation and Maintenance of FSTPs, Institutional Frameworks for FSM and Financial Transfers and Responsibility in FSM chains.
- Planning in FSM
- Case Studies
This section represents a set of case studies on Faecal Sludge Management (FSM) in the sanitation sector. The case studies are meant to provide information, insight and evidence of how FSM works in practice in many diverse situations. The best practices depicted here are a contribution towards closing the gaps that are evident in the implementation of interventions to improve sanitation services especially in urban low-income settings. Many thanks to the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF) for providing the necessary funds for the production of most of these case studies.The case studies are listed according to the Units they correspond to and in some cases, the case studies may be relevant to more than one unit.
- Future Developments
This section features links to and information concerning future developments in FSM. Most developments are linked to the RTTC [Reinventing the Toilet Challenge], but there are also some developments outside of this program.