Cell Structure

1. Studying Cells - Microscopy

Microscopes allow for magnification and visualization of cells and cellular components that cannot be seen with the naked eye.

Learning Objective

  • Compare and contrast light and electron microscopy.

Key Points

    • Light microscopes allow for magnification of an object approximately up to 400-1000 times depending on whether the high power or oil immersion objective is used.
    • Light microscopes use visible light which passes and bends through the lens system.
    • Electron microscopes use a beam of electrons, opposed to visible light, for magnification.
    • Electron microscopes allow for higher magnification in comparison to a light microscope thus, allowing for visualization of cell internal structures.


  • electron

    The subatomic particle having a negative charge and orbiting the nucleus; the flow of electrons in a conductor constitutes electricity.

  • resolution

    The degree of fineness with which an image can be recorded or produced, often expressed as the number of pixels per unit of length (typically an inch).


Cells vary in size. With few exceptions, individual cells cannot be seen with the naked eye, so scientists use microscopes (micro- = "small"; -scope = "to look at") to study them. A microscope is an instrument that magnifies an object. Most photographs of cells are taken with a microscope; these images can also be called micrographs.

The optics of a microscope's lenses change the orientation of the image that the user sees. A specimen that is right-side up and facing right on the microscope slide will appear upside-down and facing left when viewed through a microscope, and vice versa. Similarly, if the slide is moved left while looking through the microscope, it will appear to move right, and if moved down, it will seem to move up. This occurs because microscopes use two sets of lenses to magnify the image. Because of the manner by which light travels through the lenses, this system of two lenses produces an inverted image (binocular, or dissecting microscopes, work in a similar manner, but they include an additional magnification system that makes the final image appear to be upright).

Light Microscopes

To give you a sense of cell size, a typical human red blood cell is about eight millionths of a meter or eight micrometers (abbreviated as eight μm) in diameter; the head of a pin of is about two thousandths of a meter (two mm) in diameter. That means about 250 red blood cells could fit on the head of a pin.

Most student microscopes are classified as light microscopes . Visible light passes and is bent through the lens system to enable the user to see the specimen. Light microscopes are advantageous for viewing living organisms, but since individual cells are generally transparent, their components are not distinguishable unless they are colored with special stains. Staining, however, usually kills the cells.

Light and Electron Microscopes

(a) Most light microscopes used in a college biology lab can magnify cells up to approximately 400 times and have a resolution of about 200 nanometers. (b) Electron microscopes provide a much higher magnification, 100,000x, and a have a resolution of 50 picometers.

Light microscopes, commonly used in undergraduate college laboratories, magnify up to approximately 400 times. Two parameters that are important in microscopy are magnification and resolving power. Magnification is the process of enlarging an object in appearance. Resolving power is the ability of a microscope to distinguish two adjacent structures as separate: the higher the resolution, the better the clarity and detail of the image. When oil immersion lenses are used for the study of small objects, magnification is usually increased to 1,000 times. In order to gain a better understanding of cellular structure and function, scientists typically use electron microscopes.

Electron Microscopes

In contrast to light microscopes, electron microscopes use a beam of electrons instead of a beam of light. Not only does this allow for higher magnification and, thus, more detail, it also provides higher resolving power. The method used to prepare the specimen for viewing with an electron microscope kills the specimen. Electrons have short wavelengths (shorter than photons) that move best in a vacuum, so living cells cannot be viewed with an electron microscope.

In a scanning electron microscope, a beam of electrons moves back and forth across a cell's surface, creating details of cell surface characteristics. In a transmission electron microscope, the electron beam penetrates the cell and provides details of a cell's internal structures. As you might imagine, electron microscopes are significantly more bulky and expensive than light microscopes.