The design, use and performance of spate irrigation systems are affected by the following hydrological factors:
What makes these systems unique is the poor predictability of the flows that have to be utilized and the large amounts of sediments they bring in. Managing a spate irrigation system is about managing variable flows and sedimentation, and even making them work in favor of agricultural productivity.
Spate Hydrology, Wadi Morphology and Sediments
Dr. John Ratsey
Understanding Hydrological Processes in Ephemeral Rivers
Dr. Abebe Demissie
Sediment Transport in Spate Irrigation Systems
Dr. Phil Lawrence